Wednesday, March 29, 2017

“Deferred” diagnosis - Cross-Examining Psych Doctors, Tip #72

When reading a psych report you may find a “Deferred” diagnosis on Axis II.  According to the DSM-IV and the DSM-IV-TR a “Deferred” diagnosis is only used when the doctor has “Information inadequate to make any diagnostic judgment about an Axis II diagnosis.”  In this regard, as I discussed in Tip #58, Axis II is the axis on which Personality Disorders are diagnosed.  Personality Disorders are lifelong patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that cause significant impairment in social and/or occupational functioning and/or subjective distress.  Individuals with occupational or personnel problems and/or those who present with psychological signs and/or symptoms often have Personality Disorders that cause those employment issues to arise.  Accordingly, it is difficult to understand just why a doctor would chose to write their report without adequate information concerning the possible presence of a Personality Disorder.  However, it is apparent that writing a comprehensive medical-legal report without that adequate information constitutes a substantial flaw in that document.

More help for cross-examining psych doctors can be found at my website ( and in my book Psychological Evaluations In Litigation: A Practical Guide for Attorneys and Insurance Adjusters

Check out my blog (, (844) 444-8898

Friday, March 24, 2017

The MMPI Lie (L) Scale - Cross-Examining Psych Doctors, Tip #71

The major test in every medical-legal psychological evaluation test battery is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).  There are several different versions of the MMPI dating back to over 70 years ago.  The most frequently used version is the MMPI-2, which was published in 1989.  The MMPI-2, and all other versions of that test, contains validity scales and clinical scales.  Every validity and clinical scale performance on the MMPI-2 is described with a T-Score.  All T-Scores on the validity scales and the clinical scales on the MMPI-2 have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.  In this regard, it should be noted that it is well known and universally accepted that T-Scores of 65 or larger are clinically significant or interpretable.  In this regard, the Lie (L) Scale is one of the validity scales of the MMPI.  Scores 65 or higher on the Lie Scale are characteristic of individuals who are not being honest and straightforward during the examination’s procedures.

Friday, March 17, 2017

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) - Cross-Examining Psych Doctors, Tip #70

            The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a fairly new test that was created from the MMPI-2 and published in July, 2008.  The MMPI-2 is a test that was published in 1989 and was created from the original MMPI.  Following the initial publication of the MMPI-2 it was generally accepted by both psychologists and psychiatrists.  However, since that time there have been some problems with that MMPI-2.  In this regard, multiple studies have been published indicating that the MMPI-2 does not present as accurate a picture of the patient’s psychological status as the original MMPI.  Accordingly, it appears likely that one reason for the creation of the MMPI-2-RF was to correct this problem.  Unfortunately, the MMPI-2-RF has not been available for a sufficient period of time for the needed process of independent research that needs to be conducted by professionals who are not associated with the publication, distribution, marketing or sale of any of the MMPI-2 or MMPI-2-RF products.  Accordingly, the MMPI-2-RF has yet to show that it can provide an accurate portrayal of an individual’s psychological status.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Apricots™ on the mind - Cross-Examining Psych Doctors, Tip #69

If you're cross-examining a psych doctor without my help you're leaving money on the table.  I can show you how to get it. 

Do you have a psych report that is not in your favor?  In almost every case I can and will identify all of the flaws in the report, and provide you with a list of simple questions to use in cross-examination of the psych doctor.  Using the questions I provide you in an Apricot™ will expose the flaws in the doctors report and get those flaws on the record, which will ultimately save the carrier money on the psych claim.

Friday, March 3, 2017

The MMPI F Scale - Cross-Examining Psych Doctors, Tip #68

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the keystone of almost all psychological test batteries in the medical-legal arena.  There are a number of different versions of the MMPI but the most frequently used version is the MMPI-2.  The MMPI-2, like all the other MMPI’s contains validity scales and clinical scales.  Interpretation of the validity scales are used to determine if the individual has completed the test in an honest and straightforward manner that allows for the interpretation of the clinical scales used to make comments about the individual’s psychological status.  According to the psychological literature, any MMPI-2 score at or above the level of 65 is interpretable.  In this regard, the F Scale is one of the validity scales of the MMPI.  For over 70 years the F Scale has been known to be an effective device in detecting attempted simulators or what some might call “fakers” or “Malingerers.”