Friday, July 29, 2016

Cross Examining Psych Doctors - Tip #42-Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition
In order to determine if a person has had a psychological injury that determination typically rests on an evaluating physician’s diagnosis of a DSM disorder.  In reading medical-legal reports one sometimes encounters the “diagnosis” of Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition.  Unfortunately, this is not a DSM-IV-TR mental disorder.  In contrast, it is considered to be a condition that may become a focus of clinical interest, namely, it might require some attention or perhaps counseling.  Regardless, this condition is specified correctly when one or more psychological or behavioral factors have affected a general medical condition found in the patient.  In order to use this category, there must be information in the form of medical records and psychological data showing that the individual’s signs and/or symptoms are indicative of a specific medical condition and are not completely understandable in terms of the underlying physical pathology and/or an attempted simulation of symptoms.  So, if a physician in a medical discipline, such as orthopedics or internal medicine, has determined that all of the individual’s complaints are understandable in terms of their underlying physical pathology it is not appropriate to specify Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition. 

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Cross Examining Psych Doctors - Tip #41-Causation of Mental Disorders
In order to more effectively deal with medical-legal psych cases it is important to understand the cause of pathology.  In the most general sense, there are four sets of circumstances that can produce mental disorders or psychological injuries.  First, biological factors are known to produce some disorders.  A second set of mental disorders is produced as a result of a physical injury.  The third type of injury is what has sometimes been called a “pure stress injury.”  This is the type of injury where some aversive psychological circumstances in the person’s environment have produced a DSM-IV-TR psychological disorder.  And, of course, there is a fourth set of circumstances, which is simply a combination of the first three factors.  

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Help With Understanding Psych Reports - A Totally Free Lunch
Here's a reference book to help you better understand the weaknesses in psych reports and to prepare for psych depositions and submit briefs to the court.  It is an alternative to commissioning an Apricot.

The next time you want to know something about a diagnosis, a psych test or a Mental Status Examination just look it up.  Keep in mind that the weakest part of every psych report is the doctor's diagnosis.
Bruce Leckart, Ph.D.
ProfessorEmeritus of Psychology
San Diego State University
(844) 444-8898

Friday, July 15, 2016

Fifteen Ideas That Can Drive You "Crazy"
Everyone talks to themselves.  Unfortunately, sometimes the things we say to ourselves are less than productive.  In fact, some of our internal dialogues can make us “crazy.”  Here is the first of the “Big Fifteen.”

1. It is important that everyone love me.

(844) 444-8898 

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Deposing Psych Claimants: Exposing Wash-Out Reports
Psych doctors make two kinds of serious errors when writing evaluative reports for the courts. The first is failing to diagnose a disorder that is present. The second is diagnosing a disorder that is not there. Reports with these errors are called “Wash-Outs” and “Wash-Ins,” respectively.

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Friday, July 8, 2016

Free MMPI Test Score Validation Service for
Attorneys and Adjusters

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the gold standard of psychological testing.  The MMPI is well known as a valid and reliable measure of psychopathology.  It is also highly capable of detecting an individual’s credibility, including whether they are trying to depict themselves in an unrealistically favorable light or trying to appear to have symptoms do not exist.  MMPI scores are normally presented in every medical-legal psych report.  However, experience has shown that a large number of those scores are simply not possible for the patient to get, demonstrating that the doctor has made an error in scoring and/or reporting the scores.  Until now the only way to get that information has been to go to the testing manual or one of the many books on the MMPI.  

Here’s the deal!  If you are an attorney that has a medical-legal psych report and you want to know if the scores in the doctor’s report are possible, email me the report or the pages with the scores and I will provide you with a work-product privileged report that will tell you whether those scores are possible or if the doctor has made a fatal error.  No hassle, no fee, no obligation.  Just a convenient and free way of establishing the credibility of the doctor’s data!

(844) 444-8898

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

Psych Reports that "Give Away The Store"
Are you a defense attorney who has a psych case where the doctor "gave away the store?"  Or, are you a plaintiff or applicant attorney who has a psych case where the doctor "washed out" your client?  If so, we can provide an Apricot™ that will fix the problem!  Call for a free consultation at 844-444-8898.  No fee, no obligation, no kidding.

Visit my website for free resources:

Friday, July 1, 2016

Cross Examining Psych Doctors - Tip #40-Psychological Testing Standards
Reports of psychological and psychiatric evaluations typically contain data from various sources.  Usually, the only form of objective data that is open to public inspection and can be presented to the court is the psychological testing data.  Accordingly, the manner in which those data are obtained, scored, analyzed and interpreted are of primary importance.  Clearly, the first hurdle that must be overcome in assessing the credibility of the psychological testing data is the manner it was collected.  At the very minimum, all psychological testing should be administered under the supervision of a licensed mental health professional who may employ a test proctor to monitor the psychological testing and guard against any irregularities, including the possibility that the testing was not taken by the person to whom it was intended to be administered.

Check out my blog (  More help can be found at my website ( and in my book Psychological Evaluations In Litigation: A Practical Guide for Attorneys and Insurance Adjusters